Changes in the State of Matter1. Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass.
2. Matter exists in 3 states, namely the solid state, liquid state and gaseous state.
3. We can catagorise matter into 2 categories: element and compound.
4. Element is the substance that consists of 1 type of atom. Compound is the substance that consists
of more than 1 type of atom.
5. Matter is made up of a large number of tiny and discrete particles. We can catagorise the particles
into 3 categories: The atoms, the molecules and the ions.
6. Atom is the smallest, indivisible particle of an element. Atoms of the same element are exactly
alike and are different from the atoms of all other elements.
7. When 2 or more atoms join together chemically, they form molecule. For example, 2 hydrogen
atoms join together form a hydrogen molecule. 1 oxygen atom combine with 2 hydrogen atoms
form a water molecule.
8. Ions are any particles that carry charge. For example, if a hydrogen atom is charged and carries
a +1 charge, it become a hydrogen ion. Also, if an oxygen ion is charged with a charge of -2, it
become an oxygen ion.
9. Ions that carry positive charge are called cations. Ions that carry negative charge are called anions.
Kinietic Theory of MatterThe kinetic theory of matter explains the state of matter in solid, liquid and gaseous states based on
the following assumptions:
1. Matter is made up of very small particles, each of which has a mass.
2. These molecules are in constant, random motion. The rapidly moving particles constantly collide
with each other and with the walls of the container.
3. There are forces of attraction between particles of matter. These attraction forces will increase as
the distance between the particles becomes closer.
4. The average kinetic energy of the gas particles depends only on the temperature of the system.
The higher the temperature, the higher the kinetic energy of the particles.